One of the most versatile and commonly used stainless steels on the market, Grade 304 stainless steel is the most standard used alloy of this type. Essentially, Grade 304 is an austenitic chromium alloy which is also known as an "18/8" stainless as the make-up of the steel is 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
The chromium content promotes the material's considerable resistance to the effects of corrosion and oxidation. The stainless steel alloy resists most oxidizing acids and will withstand ordinary rusting though this does not mean that the steel will not tarnish over time. The steel needs to be cold worked to generate higher tensile strength. For stainless steel sections which are welded heavily, post-weld annealing may be necessary to provide maximum corrosive resistance.
Type 304 and Type 304L have very similar chemical and mechanical properties and are often included on a single material test certificate when the actual properties of a stainless steel plate meet the criteria of both types. This is a very common occurrence. Type 304L is a variation of Type 304 and has a lower carbon content which improves weldability and lowers the risk of reduced corrosion resistance around the weld. Type 304L also has a slightly lower yield and tensile strength than Type 304.
As with most steel plate products a number of different designations are used for these steels. The most common are:
|Size (in mm)||Thickness||Specification||Manufacturer|
|1||1000 x 2000
1220 x 2440
(4' x 8')
1250 x 2500
1500 x 3000 To 6000
2000 x 4000 To 6000
|A-240||Jindal, Acroni, Columbus, Acerinox, Thysenkrupp, Posco, Aperam, BRG etc.|
|Grade||304, 304L, 304H, 316, 316L, 304N, 316Ti, 309, 310S, 317L, 321, 347, 409, 410, 420, 430, 446, 202 Etc.|
|Sheet Finishing||2B, 2D, HR, CR, BA (No. 8), Satin (Met with PVC Coated)|
|Sheet & Plate in Form of||Coils, Foils, Shim Sheet, Perforated Sheet, Chequered Plate, Strip, Flats, Blank (Circle), Ring (Flange) Etc.|
|Value Added Service||Cladding
Minor Fabrication Etc.
|Specialize||Shim Sheet, Perforated Sheet (Round, Square & Oblong Hole) & as per your Drawing|
Alloys 304 (S30400), 304L 30403)(S, and 304H (S30409) stainless steels are variations of the 18 percent chromium – 8 percent nickel austenitic alloy, the most familiar and most frequently used alloy in the stainless steel family. These alloys may be considered for a wide variety of applications where one or more of the following properties are important:
Each alloy represents an excellent combination of corrosion resistance and fabricability. This combination of properties is the reason for the extensive use of these alloys which represent nearly one half of the total U.S. stainless steel production. The 18-8 stainless steels, principally Alloys 304, 304L, and 304H, are available in a wide range of product forms including sheet, strip, and plate. The alloys are covered by a variety of specifications and codes relating to, or regulating, construction or use of equipment manufactured from these alloys for specific conditions. Food and beverage, sanitary, cryogenic, and pressure-containing applications are examples.
Alloy 304 is the standard alloy since AOD technology has made lower carbon levels more easily attainable and economical. Alloy 304L is used for welded products which might be exposed to conditions which could cause intergranular corrosion in service.Alloy 304H is a modification of Alloy 304 in which the carbon content is controlled to a range of 0.04-0.10 to provide improved high temperature strength to parts exposed to temperatures above 800°F.
Chemical Composition of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets
Chemistries per ASTM A240 and ASME SA-240:
|Element||Percentage by Weight
Maximum Unless Range is Specified
Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein.
Resistance to Corrosion of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets
The Alloys 304, 304L, and 304H austenitic stainless steels provide useful resistance to corrosion on a wide range of moderately oxidizing to moderately reducing environments. The alloys are used widely in equipment and utensils for processing and handling of food, beverages, and dairy products. Heat exchangers, piping, tanks, and other process equipment in contact with fresh water also utilize these alloys.
The 18 to 19 percent of chromium which these alloys contain provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as dilute nitric acid, as illustrated by data for Alloy 304 below.
|% Nitric Acid||Temperature
|10||300 (149)||5.0 (0.13)|
|20||300 (149)||10.1 (0.25)|
|30||300 (149)||17.0 (0.43)|
Alloys 304, 304L, and 304H are also resistant to moderately aggressive organic acids such as acetic and reducing acids such as phosphoric. The 9 to 11 percent of nickel contained by these 18-8 alloys assists in providing resistance to moderately reducing environments. The more highly reducing environments such as boiling dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are shown to be too aggressive for these materials. Boiling 50 percent caustic is likewise too aggressive.
In some cases, the low carbon Alloy 304L may show a lower corrosion rate than the higher carbon Alloy 304. The data for formic acid, sulfamic acid, and sodium hydroxide illustrate this. Otherwise, the Alloys 304, 304L, and 304H may be considered to perform equally in most corrosive environments. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. The Alloy 304L is preferred for use in such media in the welded condition since the low carbon level enhances resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Intergranular Corrosion of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets
exposure of the 18-8 austenitic stainless steels to temperatures in the 800°F to 1500°F (427°C to 816°C) range may cause precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries. Such steels are "sensitized" and subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments. The carbon content of Alloy 304 may allow sensitization to occur from thermal conditions experienced by autogenous welds and heat-affected zones of welds. For this reason, the low carbon Alloy 304L is preferred for applications in which the material is put into service in the as-welded condition. Low carbon content extends the time necessary to precipitate a harmful level of chromium carbides but does not eliminate the precipitation reaction for material held for long times in the precipitation temperature range.
|Intergranular Corrosion Tests|
|ASTM A262 evaluation Test||Corrosion Rate, Mils/Yr (mm/a)|
|PracticeBase Metal Welded>||No Fissures on Bend Some Fissures on Weld
|No Fissures No Fissures|
|Practice Base Metal Welded<||Step Structure Ditched
|Step Structure Step Structure|
Stress Corrosion Cracking of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets
The Alloys 304, 304L, and 304H are the most susceptible of the austenitic stainless steels to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halides because of their relatively low nickel content. Conditions which cause SCC are: (1) presence of halide ions (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120°F (49°C). Stresses may result from cold deformation of the alloy during forming or by roller expanding tubes into tube sheets or by welding operations which produce stresses from the thermal cycles used. Stress levels may be reduced by annealing or stress relieving heat treatments following cold deformation, thereby reducing sensitivity to halide SCC. The low carbon Alloy 304L material is the better choice for service in the stress-relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion
Specific Heat of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets:
|32 - 212||0 - 100||0.12||500|
Magnetic Permeability of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets:
The 18-8 alloys are generally non-magnetic in the annealed condition with magnetic permeability values typically less than 1.02 at 200H. Permeability values will vary with composition and will increase with cold work.
|Percent Cold Work||Magnetic Permeability|
Mechanical Properties of ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets
Room Temperature Mechanical Properties
Minimum mechanical properties for annealed Alloys 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steel plate as required by ASTM specifications A240 and ASME specification SA-240 are shown below.
|Property||Minimum Mechanical Properties
Required by ASTM A240 & ASME SA-240
Strength, psi MPa
2 in. or 51 mm
ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets Packing
ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheetsis sleeved into plastic bag individually, pieces wrapped with water-proof material, bundled with nylon rope. Clear labels are tagged on the outside of the package for easy identification of the quantity and product I.D. Great care is taken during operation and transportation. SS 304 Stainless Steel Plate packing will be according to international standard in bundles strapped by strips then into containers to avoid any damage.
Delivery: Within 10-25 days or asap if we have enough stock
Types of Packaging:
ASTM A240 TP 304 Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets Available with Stock Sizes:
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